Winegrowers Supplies  -  French clones of Pinot noir

Choice of suitable clones is vital, as is careful vineyard pruning technique and planting density.

Pinot noir clones grown in Champagne are selected for their high yield; not the small berries and low yields that are sought by red wine makers. Some clones recommended for Sparkling Wine are: 521, 743, 779, 792, 870, 872, 927.

The worlds best red wines are reputed to result from a mixture of suitable clones; a common practice in Burgundy, where numbers 777 and 828 are favoured currently in addition to the reliable 114, 115 and 667, when grafted on to suitably limestone tolerant, moderately vigorous rootstocks such as Fercal and 161-49C.

The following information is derived from the ENTAV INTERNATIONAL CATALOGUE -
'Catalogue of Selected Varieties & Certified Clones Cultivated in France':-


Pinot noir INRA Clone 113:
  National ID 2901.

Origin/Source: Morey St Denis (Cote d'Or), I.N.R.A. COLMAR Pathology (1971).

Description:-

Bud growth: cottony, bronzed or light rosy. Young pale leaves. Jagged.
Adult leaf: often tri-lobed, slightly open petiolar sinus, average bullate blade on an even profile, short teeth on convex sides.
Branch: purplish.
Habit:
drooping - needs early tying.
Cluster:
small to average, stepped or winged, averagely compact with a short stalk, lignified.
Berry:
small, spherical or short elliptical shape, varying size.

Earliness: Bud burst = average. Flowering = average. Ripening of grapes = early.
Fruitfulness:
average, sometimes irregular: 1.3 - 2.20.
Cluster Weight: average 60 - 100 gms.
Susceptibility to grey mould: average despite its earliness.

Pruning:
Guyot system - production may be regularised by careful bud removal or pruning.

Organoleptic characteristics of the wine: clear and strong colour, fine floral: bouquet typical of the Pinot. Balanced in the mouth. Slightly masked tannins -designed for average keeping.
Class of wine: average or leading group.
Sugar level: above average, equivalent to 0.5 degrees.
Total acidity: average or very slightly high.

Locations: high success in good Pinot soils where it can complement the 115 clone with its sharpness of aroma. Avoid conditions that favour vigour. Oversee the choice of rootstock.
Production: average - sometimes below the annual yield if it fails to set fruit or if there is an uneven number development of berries on the bunch (millerandage) - may vary approx 10% compared to 115.
Type of clone: average to high sugar levels, early, good quality level, a sufficient but sometimes irregular yield.


Pinot noir INRA Clone 114
National ID 1601.

Origin/Source: Morey St Denis (Cote d'Or), I.N.R.A. COLMAR Pathology (1971).

Description:-

Bud growth: cottony, bronzed, lightly rosy. Young leaves are very jagged.
Adult leaf: 5 lobes, deep lateral sinuses, slightly open petiolar sinus, dark green blade, heavily bullate, lightly crinkled. A twisted profile and revolute edges.
Branch: purplish on the sun-side.
Habit: quite droopy - early tying is recommended.
Cluster: small and compact, lignified stalk.
Berry: small, spherical or elliptical shape, short, size varies. Uneven development of the berries on the bunch (millerandage) during cold spring is normal.

Earliness: Bud burst = average. Flowering = average. Ripening of grapes = early.
Fruitfulness: average, high for its type: 1.4 - 2.0.
Cluster Weight: average 60 - 90 gms.
Susceptibility to grey mould: average.
Pruning: Guyot system - short prunes (fan, cordon) may be performed with good results.

Organoleptic characteristics of the wine: strong colour with a purplish hue, rich aroma, tannic, good structure in the mouth, balanced and appropriate for keeping.
Class of wine: leading group.
Sugar level: high, in the order of 0.7 degrees above the average.
Total acidity: average, remains high despite earliness.

Locations: grows well in Pinot locations where it is associated with the success of clone 115, try to strictly master the vigour.
Production: average and close to the reference yield (5- 15% below 115).
Type of clone: average production, high sugar content, early, good quality, a sufficient yield- good specificity.


Pinot noir INRA Clone 115:
National ID 1602.

Origin/Source: Morey St Denis (Cote d'Or), I.N.R.A. COLMAR Pathology (1971).

Description:-

Bud growth: very cottony, bronzed, lightly rosy (important tendrils).
Adult leaf: average size, jagged, often with 5 lobes and deep lateral sinuses. slightly undulating blade, crinkled, average bullate with an involute profile and revolute edges, teeth have convex on straight lines.
Branch: a red colour with purplish nodes.
Habit: slightly droopy - easy to tie if carried out early enough.
Cluster:
small to average, spherical or short elliptical shape, colourful, quite pruinose.
Berry:
No information.

Earliness: Bud burst = average - leaves remain small during cold springs. Flowering = average to early - good fruit setting. Ripening of grapes = early, homogenous.
Fruitfulness: average, varies from 1.2 - 1.9 depending on the year and the growing conditions.
Cluster Weight:
average 70 - 90 gms.
Susceptibility to grey mould: average despite its earliness.
Pruning
: the Guyot system is best but a shorter cut (fan or cordon) may be practiced in certain conditions (early planting, high-quality vineyards) to enhance its qualitative potential.

Organoleptic characteristics of the wine: strong colour with a purplish hue, superior bouquet, elegant rich aroma typical of its type, a hint of small fruits, well structured, tannic, long, suitable for keeping.
Class of wine: leading group.
Sugar level: above average, equivalent to 0.5 degrees.
Total acidity:
average or very slightly high.

Locations: it is particularly good in Pinot locations (chalky soil - gravel or stones, well drained with good exposure). In a lesser grade soil (rich and deep soil, favourable exposure, high altitude) with a close check on vigour (choose of rootstock, manure and bud-load) it will produce a reasonable quality wine. This clone has a varying base (35 to 60%) that gives a quality production, good in quality areas, regional or local appellations.
Production: situated in the average reference yield.
Type of clone: average production, rich sugar content, early, good quality, regular and sufficient yield, good ability to adapt - take care about the soil.


Pinot noir Clone 375:
National ID 1611.

Origin/Source: St Denis - De - Vaux (Saone - et - Loire), A.N.T.A.V. (1974).

Description:-

Bud growth: No information.
Adult leaf: often entire, mid-green blade, involute, slightly bullate and crinkled, very little pigment in the veins.
Branch: No information.
Habit: only lightly droopy, bushy.
Cluster: average, stepped, compact, and solidly structured.
Berry: small to average, size varying according to compactness.

Earliness: Ripening of grapes = early to average.
Fruitfulness: 20% above the average (generally always 2 clusters but also some double basal buds).
Cluster Weight:
above average 70 - 110 gms.
Susceptibility to grey mould: no information.
Pruning
: avoid the Guyot system. In all cases try to limit yield. A short cut is preferred (cordons with spurs and one well-developed bud). Bud removal is necessary. Thinning is often appropriate.

Organoleptic characteristics of the wine: average colour strength, quality aromas, elegant, fruity. Balanced structure, supple, limited keeping only.
Class of wine:
average.
Sugar level: very slightly below the average and very influenced by return.
Total acidity: equal or very slightly above average (= 0.15g/l).

Locations: it will suit regional appellations. Associated with other less productive selections.
Production: at least 40% above the reference yield with Guyot cut.
Type of clone: elevated and regular yield, very fertile - produces wine to drink that are younger than those destined for prolonged keeping.


Pinot
noir Clone 667: National ID1611.

Origin/Source: Morey St Denis (Cote d'Or), A.N.T.A.V. (1980).

Description:-

Bud growth: cottony with a rosy edge, developed tendrils - young pale leaves with 5 lobes.
Adult leaf:
often with 5 lobes, open lateral sinuses, dark green blade, very bullate, twisted profile with revolute edges.
Branch: purplish areas.
Habit: reasonably droopy.
Cluster:
conical, stepped. Quite compact, and slightly structured.
Berry:
small to average, varying size.

Earliness: Budburst = average to late. Flowering = average. Ripening of grapes = average.
Fruitfulness: very slightly below average 1.3 - 1.8.
Cluster Weight: average 70 -100 gms.
Susceptibility to grey mould:
good habit but without any particular resistance.
Pruning: Guyot is preferable.

Organoleptic characteristics of the wine: beautiful, strong colour, elegant and quality bouquet but not well developed, has the structure of a wine to keep, tannic, quite long.
Class of wine: leading group.
Sugar level: above average by 0.4 degrees.
Total acidity: just below average (0.1 g/l).

Locations: can profit on all good Pinot locations producing a wine of high quality. Close enough to clone 115 with which it can be associated.
Production: within the average of the reference yield (often very close to clone 115).
Type of clone: average production with good sugar levels, interesting qualitative and quantitative aptitudes. Avoid excessive loading of the vine.


Pinot noir Clone 777:
National ID 1617.

Origin/Source: Morey St Denis (Cote d'Or), A.N.T.A.V. (1981).

Description:-

Bud growth: typical of the Pinot but the copper-colour is pronounced.
Adult leaf: quite small with 3 lobes (or often with 5), dark green blade, very bullate, an involute profile, revolute edges, bullate top face, short teeth on convex sides.
Branch: quite coloured, reddening on the side exposed to the sun.
Habit:
drooping.
Cluster: small, conical, compact, short peduncle, a little lignified.
Berry:
small, spherical or elliptical. irregular diameter.

Earliness: Budburst = average to late. Flowering = average to late. Ripening of grapes = early.
Fruitfulness:
just above the average: 1.2 - 1.7.
Cluster Weight:
average to small: 50 - 90 gms.
Susceptibility to grey mould:
not very susceptible, but without strong resistance.
Pruning: Guyot with a bud-stick is preferable.

Organoleptic characteristics of the wine: strong and intense colours, strong aromas, typical of this type, good balance - round, tannic, appropriate to keep.
Class of wine:
leading group, the small berries make it particularly suitable for making red wine.
Sugar level: above average by 0.4 degrees.
Total acidity:
below average (0.5g/l).

Locations: must be planted in a quality zones. Brings a qualitative bonus in any situation. Endeavour to avoid conditions that favour excess vigour that exposes the plant to uneven development of berries on a bunch.
Production: below the reference average - in the order of 15% below that of 115.
Type of clone: high quality Pinot with a short cycle (quite late bud burst and early maturity) with a higher degree of sugar content, weak acidity and a good performance against Botrytis. Moderate returns enable it to produce an excellent quality wine to be kept.


Pinot noir Clone 828:

Origin/Source: Burgundian clone of excellent quality.

Description:- information to follow:-

Much larger berries than clone 777, hence particularly suitable for making Sparkling Wine.


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